Glossary

MEDIA

Commercial Impressions – The sum total of audience reached by an advertiser’s message in a given schedule. Households or viewers can be counted more than once

Continuity – The strategy and tactics used to schedule advertising over the time span of the advertising campaign

Cost-Per-Point (CPP, or shorthand: Points) – Advertising cost calculated by dividing the cost of one or a series of commercials by the size of the audience expressed in rating points

Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) – Cost of reaching 1,000 homes or individuals with a specific advertising message. This is a standard advertising device for comparing the relative cost efficiency of different programs, stations, or media.

Dayparts – Specific segments of broadcast schedule, e.g. morning, daytime, early fringe, prime time, late night, etc.

Designated Marketing Area (DMA) – This represents an exclusive geographic area of counties in which the home market stations are estimated to have the largest quarter-hour audience share

Direct mail – A medium of advertising that uses the mail to carry the message

Flight – Concentration of advertising weight levels in periods of limited duration; alternating periods of advertising with periods of no activity

Hiatus – Period during a campaign when an advertiser’s schedule is suspended for a short period of time, after which it resumes

Reach &Frequency – A form of detailing the percent of different people or households exposed to a media vehicle or schedule (reach), and the average number of time exposed (frequency)

Share of voice (SOV) – The percentage of advertising messages in a medium by one brand among all messages for that product or service

Target audience – The audience desired by an advertiser in terms of potential consumption of products or service usage

Targeted Rating Point (TRP) – Rating points expressed as a % of a target demographic (i.e., Men, ages 25-54).

Copy – The written elements in an ad, including headlines, underlines and overlines, subheads, body copy, captions, slogans and taglines

Creative brief – A document that provides important insights that will help make the advertising executions more persuasive. It clearly states the opportunity or problem the advertising must address, the target audience, key insights into consumer beliefs or practices, the key benefit to the consumer, the reason why one is advertising, the competitive environment and tactical elements such as logo placement, legal issues, and budget.

Marketing strategy – A document outlining the marketing objectives

Storyboard – A series of frames sketched to illustrate how the story line will develop

Tagline – A memorable phrase that sums up the concept or key point of the ad

Thumbnail (pencil) sketches – Small preliminary sketches of various layout ideas

Headline – The title of an ad; it is set in large type to get the reader’s attention


CREATIVE PRODUCTION

Layout – A drawing that shows where all the elements in the ad are to be positioned

Pre-production Meeting (pre-pro) – A formal meeting held before filming begins; attendees include the Client, the Agency, the Director, the Producer and the Production company. In this meeting, all players agree to how the commercial will be filmed, the actors selected, the locations selected, the music that will be used, the wardrobe of the actors

Rough cut – A preliminary rough edited version of the commercial

Screen Actors Guild (SAG) – The union to which all television actors performing on film belong

Subheads – Sectional headline used to break up masses of type

Talent – People who appear in television commercials

Voice-over – A technique used in commercials in which an off-camera announcer talks about the on-camera scene

ONLINE ADVERTISING

Banner – A large ad unit located within a defined ad space on a web page which typically links to the advertisers site

Rich media – An ad unit that makes use of technology which allows user interaction, advanced animation, audio and/or video and advanced tracking

Viral marketing – A campaign designed to be passed from one person to another without direct intervention by the originating advertiser

Content – The copy/images that make up an ad unit

Opt-in – The process by which a person agrees to receive direct communication from an advertiser

Opt-out – The process by which a person refuses to accept direct communication from an advertiser

Click through rate – Calculated as a percentage of clicks on/in a unit versus the number of units viewed

RESEARCH

Concept testing – The audience’s evaluation of alternative creative strategies

Evaluative (creative) research – Research intended to measure the effectiveness of finished or nearly finished advertisements

Focus group – A group interview that tries to stimulate people to talk candidly about some topics or products

Persuasion test – A test that evaluates the effectiveness of an advertisement by measuring whether the ad affects consumers’ intentions to buy a brand

Recall test – A test that evaluates the memorability of an advertisement by contacting members of the advertisement’s audience and asking them what they remember about it

Recognition test – A test that evaluates the memorability of an advertisement by contacting members of the advertisement’s audience, showing them the ad, and asking if they remember it

Qualitative data – Research that seeks to understand how and why people thing and behave as they do

Quantitative data – Research that uses statistics to describe consumers


SPONSORSHIPS

Category Exclusivity – The right of a sponsor to be the only company within its product or service category associated with the sponsored property

Cause Marketing – Promotional strategy that links a company’s sales campaign directly to a nonprofit organization. Generally includes an offer by the sponsor to make a donation to the cause with purchase of its product or service. Unlike philanthropy, money spent on cause marketing is a business expense, not a donation, and is expected to show a return on investment.

Event Marketing – Promotional strategy linking a company to an event (sponsorship of a sports competition, festival, etc.); often used as a synonym for “sponsorship”

Entitlements/Fulfillment – The delivery of benefits promised to the sponsor in the contract

Leverage/Activation – The marketing activities a company conducts to promote its sponsorship; money spent on activation is over and above the rights fee paid to the sponsored property

Sponsorship – The relationship between a sponsor and a property, in which the sponsor pays a cash or in-kind fee in return for access to the exploit-able commercial potential associated with the property

GENERAL ADVERTISING TERMINOLOGY

Account management – The function in an agency which serves as a liaison between the agency and the client

Account planner – The agency person responsible for the creation, implementation and modification of the strategy on which creative work is based.

Advertising campaign – A comprehensive advertising plan for a series of different but related ads that appear in different media across a specified time period

Advertising plan – A plan that proposes strategies for targeting the audience, presenting the advertising message, and implementing the media

Advocacy advertising – A type of corporate advertising that involves creating advertisements and purchasing space to deliver a specific, targeted message

Art Director – The agency person who is primarily responsible for the visual image of the advertisement

Brand equity – The use of a respected brand name to add value to a product; the strategic ideas and executional properties that set the brand apart from the competition in consumers’ minds

Brand image – A mental image that reflects the way a brand is perceived, including all the identification elements, the product personality, and the emotions and associations evoked in the mind of the consumer

Brand loyalty – Existing positive opinions held by consumers about the product or service

Branding – The process of creating an identity for a product using a distinctive name or symbol

Business-to business advertising (B2B) – Advertising directed at people who buy or specify products for business use

Copywriter – The agency person who writes the text for an ad

Direct response advertising – Commercial messages that seek direct and prompt response from the viewer, by means of exhibiting telephone numbers, box numbers, or other means of getting the viewer to order or inquire about products or services

Market segmentation – The process of identifying segments to target

Market segments – Groups of people with characteristics in common who make up important subcategories of the population

Premium – A tangible reward received for performing a particular act, such as purchasing a product or visiting the point of purchase

Promotion – The element in the marketing mix that encourages the purchase of a product or service

Public service announcement (PSA) – A type of public relations advertising that deals with public welfare issues and is typically run free of charge

Target audience – The audience desired by an advertiser in terms of potential consumption of products or service usage

MEDIA

Advertising Weight – Amount of advertising being planned for, or used by a brand. Most frequently stated in terms of the number of messages, impressions, or Gross Rating Points delivered to a market or target within a specific period of time.

Air Date – First broadcast of a commercial or broadcast date of a particular program.

Affiliate – A television or radio station that has a contract with one or more networks to carry the network’s programs and announcements. Also refers to cable systems carrying programming from one or more satellite networks.

Agency of Record – An agency that purchases media time or space for another agency or a group of agencies that service the same client

Announcement – Any television commercial regardless of time length, within or between programs, which presents an advertiser’s message or a public service announcement (PSA)

Arbitron – Research firm involved in television and radio audience measurement.

Audience – A group of individuals who are exposed to an advertising message. Audience measurements are expressed as percentages or as estimated numbers of the households

tuned or individuals watching / listening / reading a media vehicle.

Audience composition – The demographic profile of audiences of a particular advertising medium

Audience profile – A set of characteristic traits within a defined group of viewers – age, income, occupation, family size, etc.

Audience turnover – The rate of audience change caused by the constant flux of viewers turning in and out, over a period of time

Availability – Unit of television time available for purchase, including programming available for sponsorship. Also known as avail

Average cost trends – A history of changes in the average unit (per message) prices for each medium that is used in cost forecasting

Average frequency – The number of exposures of an average household or consumer over a specified period of time to a series of advertisements through all media carrying the advertisements

Back-to-back – Two commercials or programs shown one directly after the other

Billboard – An announcement (usually 10 seconds long) identifying a sponsor, either at the start or conclusion of a program

Barter syndication – Programs that are offered to a station at a reduced price or for fee, with presold national spots

Bonus spot – An advertising spot given to the buyer free of charge, usually as an incentive for buying other spots, to round out a given schedule, or to make up any deficiency in promisedrating delivery

Call letters – A station’s identifying designation, e.g. KSAT-TV

Closing date – The date set by a publication for receipt of material for an advertisement to appear in a forthcoming issue

Commercial Impressions – The sum total of audience reached by an advertiser’s message in a given schedule. Households or viewers can be counted more than once

Continuity – The strategy and tactics used to schedule advertising over the time span of the advertising campaign

Continuity discount – A rate discount allowed an advertiser who purchases a specific schedule within a series of publication’s issues

Continuous – An advertising schedule pattern in which spending remains relatively constant during the campaign period

Cost Efficiency – Effectiveness of media as measured by a comparison of audience, either potential or actual, with cost and expressed as cost-per-thousand units of audience.

Cost-Per-Point (CPP) – Advertising cost calculated by dividing the cost of one or a series of commercials by the size of the audience expressed in rating points. If the cost of a commercial is $50,000 and the rating for a program is 12, the CPP is $50, 000/12, or $4,166.67.

Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) – Cost of reaching 1,000 homes or individuals with a specific advertising message. This is a standard advertising device for comparing the relative cost efficiency of different programs, stations, or media. Total cost for one or a series of commercials is divided by the projected audience shown in the thousands, If the cost of a commercial is $50,000 and the projected audience is 4.6 million, then the CPM = $10.87 (formula: 50,0001 (4,600,000/1000»

CPM trend analysis – Longitudinal (long term) history of average cost-per-thousand tendencies of advertising media that is used to assist in forecasting future CPM levels

Coverage – The potential number of homes able to receive television programming aired by a given station or network

Cumulative audience (CUME) – The number of different homes or people a schedule of programs reaches over a specified period

Daily Rate – Rate a newspaper charges for linage in its weekly editions as opposed to the rate for the Sunday edition

Dayparts (Television) – Segments of the day, which, in general, reflect television station programming patterns. Comparison of audience estimates between dayparts indicate differences in size and composition of audience.

Common dayparts expressed in EST are:

  • Morning 7:00 AM – 9:00 AM Monday-Friday
  • Daytime 9:00 AM – 4:30 AM Monday-Friday
  • Early Fringe 4:30 PM – 7:30 PM Monday-Friday
  • Early News Local daypart within the Early Fringe daypart; exact time varies by market
  • Prime Time Access 7:30 PM – 8:00 PM Sunday-Saturday
  • Prime Time 8:00 PM – 11 :00 PM Monday-Saturday; 7:00 PM – 11 :00 PM Sunday
  • Late News 11 :00 PM – 11 :30 PM Monday-Friday
  • Late Fringe 11 :30 PM – 1:00 AM Monday-Friday

Dayparts (Radio)

  • Morning Drive 6:00 AM – 10:00 AM
  • Housewife 10:00 AM – 3:00 PM
  • Afternoon Drive 3:00 PM – 7:00 PM
  • Night or Teen 7:00 PM – 12:00 AM

Demographics – Audience composition based on various socioeconomic characteristics such as age, sex, income, education, household size, occupation, etc.

Designated Marketing Area (DMA) – This represents an exclusive geographic area of counties in which the home market stations are estimated to have the largest quarter-hour audience share

Drive Time – Radio designations for the most times of the day (both morning and afternoon) when most people drive to or from work (about 6-10am and 4-7pm)

Duplication – The number of individuals (or homes) exposed to more than one advertising message through a media schedule

Effective frequency – A form of planning media that determines a range (minimum and maximum) of repeat exposure for a message

Effective reach – The number of individuals (or homes) reached by a media schedule at a given level of frequency

Efficiency – The relationship of media cost to audience delivery

Exclusivity – The assurance by a station or network that a sponsor’s message will be positioned so that there is virtually no proximity to ads for competitive products or services

Exposure – A person’s physical contact (visual and/or audio) with an advertising medium or message

Exterior transit advertising – Advertising posters that are mounted on the sides, rear and top of vehicles

Flight – Concentration of advertising weight levels in periods of limited duration; alternating periods of advertising with periods of no activity

Flighting – A technique used by advertisers in which broadcasts commercials are scheduled to run for a specific time period followed by a hiatus, followed by another period of advertising. Flighting is used rather than continuity in order to extend media weight over tie or to afford higher levels during “on” periods

Free-standing insert advertisements – Preprinted advertisements that are placed loosely within the newspaper

Frequency – The number of times an audience is exposed to an advertising message in a specified time span

Gross impressions – The sum of the audiences of all media vehicles used within a designated time span

Guarantees – Agreements in which the medium promises to compensate the advertiser should the audience fall below a specified level

Hiatus – Period during a campaign when an advertiser’s schedule is suspended for a short period of time, after which it resumes

Household – All those people who occupy one living unit, whether or not they are related

Impact – A value of media influence on the audience that is expected to produce higher than normal awareness of the advertiser’s message; the effect that a message has on the audience

Independent station A broadcast station not affiliated with a line network

Interior transit advertising. Advertising on posters that are mounted inside vehicles, such as buses, subways, cars and taxis

Kiosks – Multi-sided bulletin board structures designed for public posting of messages

Makegood – Compensation given by the media to advertisers in the form of additional message units, which are commonly used in situations involving production errors by the media and preemption of the advertiser’s programming

Media – The channels of communication used by advertisers

Media planning – A decision process leading to the use of advertising time and space to assist in the achievement of marketing objectives

Merchandising – Promotional activities that complement advertising and which are provided free or at a nominal charge by media purchased for advertising

Network – 1. A group of broadcast stations or cable systems affiliated with a common program source. 2. A common source of programs for a group of affiliated broadcast stations or cable systems

Nielson Rating – Usually refers to percent of U.S. television households tuned to a particular network program during the average minute of a particular telecast

Network TV – Television carried on a nationwide or regional basis by many stations, usually simultaneously within time zones; stations receive and telecast the programming from a central point

Network radio – A group of affiliates providing simultaneous programming via connection to one or more of the national networks

Nontraditional delivery – Delivery of magazines to readers through such methods as door hangers or newspapers

One-time-only (OTO) – A commercial announcement or program that runs only once

0&0 Stations (Owned and Operated) – Refers specifically to those stations which are owned and operated by a national network.

Penetration – The proportion of persons (or homes) that are physically able to be exposed to a medium

Position – The location of commercials in a program.

Post-Buy Analysis – An evaluation based on the audience viewing levels at the time the commercial ran. Used to determine the effectiveness of an advertising buy

Preferred Position – A magazine page position assumed to deliver high ad readership. Preferred positions are typically in the front of the publication or next to high appeal editorial material. Premium rates may be charged

Rate Card – A printed document obtainable from advertising media which lists advertising rates, mechanical specifications, etc.

Rating – Estimate of the size of a television or radio audience relative to the total group sampled, expressed as a percentage. Example: if 2 million households are watching a program, and if 10 million households is the total population, the program’s rating would be 20.0

Rating Point – Each whole percentage in a rating (1 rating point =1% of a specific universe)

Reach – Actual number of different individuals in a market that are reached by the advertiser’s message; reach is usually expressed as a % of the total population

Reach & Frequency – A form of detailing the percent of different people or households exposed to a media vehicle or schedule (reach), and the average number of time exposed (frequency). Reach and frequency are related to GRPs in the following formula: Reach x Frequency = GRPs

Share – % homes/people using TV or radio that are tuned to a particular station at a particular time

Share of market – The percentage of the total category sales owned by one brand

Share of voice (SOV) – The percentage of advertising messages in a medium by one brand among all messages for that product or service

Schedule – The compilation of dates and time of advertiser’s messages slated for broadcast

Sponsorships – The purchase of more than one announcement within a program allowing advertisers to receive bonus time via billboards

Spot announcements – Ads shown during the breaks between programs

Spot radio advertising – A form of advertising in which an ad is placed with an individual station rather than through a network

Spot television – Time purchased by an advertiser on a local station, rather than a network

Station break – The interval between shows used to identify a station source or run a commercial

Sustaining Advertising – A brand’s normal or regular advertising, as distinguished from test or introductory advertising

Sweeps – A term used to describe those times of the year when all individual markets are measured by the rating services. In TV, commonly refers to the four-week measurement period in the months of November, February, May and July

Syndication – Television or radio shows that are reruns or original programs purchased by local stations to fill in during open hours

Targeted Rating Point (TRP) – Rating points expressed as a % of a target demographic (i.e., Men, ages 25-54).

Traditional delivery – Delivery of magazines to readers through newstands or home delivery

Traffic – The department at a station or ad agency that ensures broadcasting of scheduled commercials

Upfront buying – An advertiser’s commitment (usually large) early in the network television buying season, which typically describes more than just a quarterly commitment

Viewers per household – The average number of viewers watching a program in each home

CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Advertising objective – Statements of the effect of the advertising message on the audience

Benefits – Statements about what the product can do for the user

Body copy – The text of the message

Claim – A statement about the product’s performance

Copy – The written elements in an ad, including headlines, underlines and overlines, subheads, body copy, captions, slogans and taglines

Creative brief – A document that provides important insights that will help make the advertising executions more persuasive. It clearly states the opportunity or problem the advertising must address, the target audience, key insights into consumer beliefs or practices, the key benefit to the consumer, the reason why one is advertising, the competitive environment and tactical elements such as logo placement, legal issues, and budget.

Creative concept – A “Big Idea” that is original and dramatizes the selling point

Creative strategy – A document that outlines the message strategy decisions behind an individual ad – how the target perceives the category, what you want the target to do, the reason the target should believe the core idea an the personality of your product or service

Key frame – A single frame of a commercial that summarizes the heart of the message

Key visual – A dominant image around which the commercial’s message is planned

Marketing plan – A written document that proposes strategies for employing the marketing mix to achieve marketing objectives

Photoboard – A type of rough commercial, similar to an animatic except that the frames are actual photos instead of sketches

Positioning – The way in which a product is perceived in the marketplace by the consumers

Promise – A benefit statement that looks to the future

Reason why – A statement that explains why the feature will benefit the user

Script – A written version of a radio or television commercial

Slogans – Frequently repeated phrases that provide continuity to an advertising campaign

Storyboard – A series of frames sketched to illustrate how the story line will develop

Tagline – A memorable phrase that sums up the concept or key point of the ad

Thumbnail (pencil) sketches – Small preliminary sketches of various layout ideas

TV AND RADIO ADVERTISING

Animatic – A preliminary version of a commercial with the storyboard frames recorded on videotape along with a rough sound track

Casting – The process of choosing those who will become the actors in the commercial

Cut – An abrupt transition from one shot to another

Director – The person in charge of the actual filming of the commercial

Dubbing – The process of making duplicate copies of a videotape

Editor – The person who assembles the best shots to create scenes and who synchronizes the audio track with the images

Extra – An actor that is not recognizable in a TV commercial

Holding fee – Payment to an actor that ensures the performer will not appear in competitive commercials and gives the advertiser the right to air the spot; typically paid every 13 weeks

Mixing – Combining different tracks of music, voices, and sound effects to create the final ad

Pre-production Meeting (pre-pro) – A formal meeting held before filming begins; attendees include the Client, the Agency, the Director, the Producer and the Production company. In this meeting, all players agree to how the commercial will be filmed, the actors selected, the locations selected, the music that will be used, the wardrobe of the actors

Principal – An actor that is recognizable in a television commercial

Producer – The person in charge of all the arrangements for a commercial, including setting, casting, arranging for the music, and handling bids and budgets

Residual fee – Compensation to actors based on how the commercial is used -local, network, cable – and when it actually airs; the fee is typically estimated for a 13-week cycle

Rough cut – A preliminary rough edited version of the commercial

Screen Actors Guild (SAG) – The union to which all actors performing on film belong

Session Payment – due to an actor for the time spent filming a commercial

Set (location) – A constructed setting where the action in a commercial takes place

Slice of life – A problem-solution message built around some common, everyday situation

Sound effects (SFX) – Lifelike imitations of sounds

Synchronize – Matching the audio to the video in a commercial

Talent – People who appear in television commercials

Voice-over – A technique used in commercials in which an off-camera announcer talks about the on-camera scene

PRINT ADVERTISING

Art – The visual elements in an ad, including illustrations, photos, type, logos and signatures and the layout

Billboards – Large structures erected on highways and roads for the display of huge advertising posters

Bleed – to extend the illustration or copy to the edge of a page so there is no white border

Broadsheet – A newspaper with a size of eight columns wide and 22 inches deep

Color separation – The process of splitting a color image into four images recorded on negatives; each negative represents one of the four process colors (magenta, cyan, yellow and black)

Four-Color (4/C) – Black and three colors (blue, yellow, and red). Standard color combinations used by practically all publication offering color advertising. With these colors any shade of color may be reproduced

Headline – The title of an ad; it is set in large type to get the reader’s attention

Layout – A drawing that shows where all the elements in the ad are to be positioned

Margin – White space used to frame the ad content

Mechanicals – A finished pasteup, with every element perfectly positioned, that is photographed to make printing plates for offset printing

Non-Bleed – When elements of an ad do not extend to the edge of the page. A continuous tone ad would appear to have a white margin around it

Point-of-purchase display – A display designed by the manufacturer and distributed to retailers in order to promote a particular brand or line of products

Process colors – Four basic inks – magenta, cyan, yellow and black – that are mixed to produce a full range of colors found in four color printing

Reverse type – A style of typesetting in which letters appear to be white against a darker background

Spread – A single ad on two pages facing each other

Subheads – Sectional headline used to break up masses of type

Supplements – Syndicated or local full-color advertising inserts that appear in newspapers throughout the week

Tabloid – A newspaper with a page size five columns wide and 14 inches deep

Tear sheet – The pages from the newspaper on which an ad appears


DIRECT MAIL ADVERTISING

Data bases – List of consumers with information that helps target and segment those who are highly likely to be in the market for a certain product

Direct mail – A medium of advertising that uses the mail to carry the message

Direct-order marketing or mail order – A form of marketing that uses mail or some other deliver system to deliver the product

Predictive Model – A formula that predicts the behavior of customers – how likely to purchase a product; how likely to stop purchasing the product; profitability of the customer

Predictive Modeling – process that eliminates the least productive audiences while optimizing the marketing investment

Purging – The process of deleting repeated names when two or more lists or combined

RESEARCH

Attitude – A learned predisposition that we hold toward an object, person or ideal

Brand development index (BDI) – An index that identifies the demand for the brand within a region

Carry-over effect – A measure of residual effect (awareness or recall) of the advertising message some time after the advertising period has ended

Category development index (COl) – An index that identifies the demand for the category within the region

Concept testing – The audience’s evaluation of alternative creative strategies

Diagnostic research – Research used to identify the best approach from among a set of alternatives

Evaluative (creative) research – Research intended to measure the effectiveness of finished or nearly finished advertisements

Exploratory research – Informal intelligence gathering, backgrounding

Focus group – A group interview that tries to stimulate people to talk candidly about some topics or products

In-market tests – Tests that measure the effectiveness of advertisements by measuring actual sales results in the marketplace

Market research – Research that gathers information about specific markets

Marketing research – Research that investigates all the elements of the marketing mix

Nielson (A.C. Nielson Company) – A firm engaged in local and national measurement if the television audience.

Persuasion test – A test that evaluates the effectiveness of an advertisement by measuring whether the ad affects consumers’ intentions to buy a brand

Primary research – Information that is collected from original sources

Recall – The ability to remember specific information content of an ad

Recall test – A test that evaluates the memorability of an advertisement by contacting members of the advertisement’s audience and asking them what they remember about it

Recognition – An ability to remember having seen the commercial before

Recognition test – A test that evaluates the memorability of an advertisement by contacting members of the advertisement’s audience, showing them the ad, and asking if they remember it

Relevance – That quality of an advertising message that makes it important to the audience

Qualitative data – Research that seeks to understand how and why people thing and behave as they do

Quantitative data – Research that uses statistics to describe consumers

Secondary research – Information that has been compiled and published

Situation analysis – The section of an advertising campaign plan that summarizes the relevant research findings about the company, the product, the competition, the marketplace, and the consumer


ONLINE ADVERTISING

Bandwidth The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time

Banner – A large ad unit located within a defined ad space on a web page which typically links to the advertisers site

Bounce rate – Typically relates specifically to email, calculated as the percentage of units sent versus the units that are returned to the sender as undeliverable

Button – A small ad unit located within a defined ad space on a web typically links to the advertisers site

Click through rate – Calculated as a percentage of clicks on/in a unit versus the number of units viewed

Content – The copy/images that make up an ad unit

Cookie – To identify users and possibly prepare customized web page for them – tag to track users “on-line patterns”

Interstitial Ad – units that are placed in secondary windows that pop-up between pages when you move from one web page; the ad unit typically links to the advertisers site

Menu – A list of commands or options from which you can choose

Opt-in – The process by which a person agrees to receive direct communication from an advertiser

Opt-out – The process by which a person refuses to accept direct communication from an advertiser

Open rate – Typically relates to emails, calculated as the percentage of units delivered versus the units opened

Protocol – An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices

Rich media – An ad unit that makes use of technology which allows user interaction, advanced animation, audio and/or video and advanced tracking

Spam – Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more generally as any unsolicited email

Superstitial – A registered trademark name for Unicast’s ad units that download during inactive periods of su~ng to minimize page load delays which rich media units often cause

Surround session – New media buy where advertiser owns the entire user experience through a web site – vs. a banner on one page on the web site

Tag – A command inserted in a document that specifies how the document, or a portion of the document, should be formatted. Tags are used by all format specifications that store documents as text files

Viral marketing – A campaign designed to be passed from one person to another without direct intervention by the originating advertiser

SPONSORSHIPS

Ambush Marketing – A promotional strategy whereby a non-sponsor attempts to capitalize on the popularity/prestige of a property by giving the false impression that it is a sponsor; often employed by the competitors of a property’s official sponsors

Category Exclusivity – The right of a sponsor to be the only company within its product or service category associated with the sponsored property.

Cause Marketing – Promotional strategy that links a company’s sales campaign directly to a nonprofit organization. Generally includes an offer by the sponsor to make a donation to the cause with purchase of its product or service. Unlike philanthropy, money spent on cause marketing is a business expense, not a donation, and is expected to show a return on investment.

Cross-Promotions – A joint marketing effort conducted by two or more co-sponsors using the sponsored property as the central theme

Event Marketing – Promotional strategy linking a company to an event (sponsorship of a sports competition, festival, etc.); often used as a synonym for “sponsorship”

Entitlements/Fulfillment – The delivery of benefits promised to the sponsor in the contract

Hospitality – Hosting key customers, clients, government officials, employees and other VIPs at an event; usually involves tickets, parking, dining and other amenities, often in a specially designated area, and may include pro-am spots, backstage tours, etc.

In-Kind Trade Sponsorship – Payment (full or partial) of sponsorship fee in goods or services rather than cash

Leverage/Activation – The marketing activities a company conducts to promote its sponsorship; money spent on activation is over and above the rights fee paid to the sponsored property

Licensed Merchandise – Goods produced by a manufacturer (the licensee) who has obtained a license to produce and distribute the official Marks on products such as clothing and souvenirs

Media Equivalencies/Return on Investment (ROI) – Measuring the exposure value of a sponsorship by adding up all the coverage it generated and calculating what it would have cost to buy a like amount of ad time or space in those outlets based on media rate cards

Option to Renew/First Right of Refusal – Contractual right to renew a sponsorship on specified terms

Perimeter Advertising/Signage – Stationary advertising around the perimeter of an arena or event site, often reserved for sponsors; banners, billboards, electronic messages, decals, etc., displayed on-site and containing Sponsor ID

Premiums – Souvenir merchandise, produced to promote a sponsor’s involvement with a property (customized with the names/logos of the sponsor and the property)

Presenting Sponsor – The sponsor that has its name presented just below that of the sponsored property, i.e., “The Kroger Senior Classic presented by Fifth Third Bank”

Primary Sponsor – The sponsor paying the largest fee and receiving most prominent identification; (WOUld be title sponsor if sponsored property sold title)

Sponsorship – The relationship between a sponsor and a property, in which the sponsor pays a cash or in-kind fee in return for access to the exploit-able commercial potential associated with the property

Sponsorship Agency – A firm which specializes in advising on, managing, brokering or organizing sponsored properties; the agency may be employed by either the sponsor or property

Sports Marketing – Promotional strategy linking a company to sports (sponsorship of competitions, teams, leagues, etc.)

Venue Marketing – Promotional strategy linking a sponsor to a physical site (sponsorship of stadiums, arenas, auditoriums, amphitheaters, racetracks, fairgrounds, etc.)

Virtual Signage – The insertion of signage electronically during a TV broadcast that is not actually present at the event